Project update 10-06-12
This project currently remains inactive. If you are an individual or organization located in Honduras or are familiar with the on the ground situation (read Honduran newspapers/websites) and are interested in collaborating with this project please email gro.sedagirblabolg|senoj.luap#gro.sedagirblabolg|senoj.luap
Mission Objective. Our objective is to identify those infectious diseases that may abruptly overwhelm the ad hoc medical infrastructure or be perceived by the Honduran public to be unusual or unexpected. In other words, identification and prioritization of those infectious diseases that may become a crisis or disaster.
Biosurveillance Grid Status. HnEAS not presently activated. HnEAS Google group under construction.
Social Order-Health Security Nexus. Findings from other countries suggest massive social disruption potential during epidemics of cholera. As with any infectious disease crisis or disaster, provokation of social outcry and challenge to established authority may occur.
Meteorology. Honduras is currently in the midst of the major rainy season.
Medical Response Grid Status. Should an infectious disease crisis become manifest, the risk of inundation and overwhelming medical logistics during a rapid response campaign has remained high.
Infectious disruptor agent. An infectious disease capable of triggering crisis or disaster conditions.
Infectious disease crisis: time-sensitive, non-routine organization-level decisions that may affect a local community’s activities of daily living. It is more common such decision-making falls within the roles and responsibility of a public health institution than a public or private hospital or individual healthcare provider. This becomes a community level decision-making activity in countries where there is no public health capacity. The majority concern here is pediatric diarrheal disease in Haiti.
Infectious disease disaster: when crisis mode decision making by public health officials or institution fails to control the situation, either from an informational or response perspective and substantial social disruption associated with features of community disintegration occurs as a result. The term "community disintegration" refers to the dissolution of a community as a social unit. This is classically exemplified by the evacuation of a village due to an uncontrolled epidemic. Ebola is the archetype disruptor capable of generating this kind of social response in undeveloped areas of Africa. We do not consider any of the infectious disease in Haiti to represent potential disasters.
Warning. Indication of increasing incidence of an infectious disruptor agent, with alignment of optimized conditions to support transmission.
Watch. Indication of increasing incidence of an infectious disruptor agent, without alignment of optimized conditions to support transmission.
Advisory. Presence of an infectious disruptor agent reported.
Infectious Disease Impact Scale (IDIS). The IDIS is a model that serves as a guide to understanding the impact of acutely disruptive infectious disease events through the lens of disaster sociology. Up to this point, event descriptors of infectious disease events have focused on use of terms like "outbreak" and "epidemic". This is problematic in the operational setting when valid epidemiological data is often sparse or unreliable. Here we consider a different perspective that focuses on the interface between an infectious disease hazard and indigenous vulnerability.
IDIS Category 0. Unreported infectious disease event. Daily, routine infectious diseases are handled at this level, and provision of warning about these diseases is not deemed 'relevant'.
IDIS Category 1. Reported infectious disease event. The typical Category 1 infectious disease event reported by a community reflects a sensitivity to public health or medical significance. No other significant features indicative of immediate public health or medical infrastructure impact, public anxiety, or civil unrest triggered by the event are noted.
IDIS Category 2. Infectious disease event associated with routine organized response. Category 2 events often reflect locally well-known diseases that nevertheless generate a demand for organization-level time-sensitive action. This action is local routine.
IDIS Category 3. Infectious disease event associated with non-routine organized response. Category 3 events are essentially the beginnings of a community crisis.
IDIS Category 4. Infectious disease event associated with social disruption. Category 4 events highlight when organized response has occurred, yet significant social disruption has been documented.
IDIS Category 5. Infectious disease event associated with disaster indicators.
IDIS Category 6. Infectious disease event associated with apocalyptic indicators.
Above definitions based on modification of HEAS definitions from: Haiti Epidemic Advisory System
National Epidemiological Surveillance
The Honduran national epidemiological surveillance system has maintained coverage levels of under 60% for weekly national reporting of diseases, although there are significant differences among the various health regions of the country. The system encompasses diseases under international surveillance (cholera, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, influenza, and malaria), as well as diseases under surveillance by the national disease alert system and the Expanded Program on Immunization: typhoid fever, dengue, meningitis, and encephalitis. Most of the control programs have established their own information systems, but they are not linked together. Honduras participates in epidemiological monitoring of diarrheal diseases, amebiasis, tuberculosis, rabies, leishmaniasis, and AIDS.